Globalization is one of the key drivers of change in higher education. According to Africa Policy Review, Africa contributes only one percent of global knowledge due to weak research and knowledge generation capacity.
In the recent years, there has been growing interest from new entrants such as Brazil, China, and India in research partnerships with Africa. Such partnerships can strengthen strong infrastructure to sustain knowledge production as innovation and research are frontiers for international academic exchanges, as per Africa Policy Review.
Africa a has the lowest ratio of researcher due to their low investment in research and lack of access to technology. This can be changed through ICT such as the African e-Journal Project which provides an opportunity to disseminate African research with a wider reach.
Globalization also fosters academic mobility which offers specialized training and knowledge sharing across borders. Mobility is not a trending phenomenon but is older as many African scholars were trained abroad, as per Africa Policy Review.
Africa has increasingly youth population with growing demand for education and Africa has and will continue to be a key player in mobility. One of the negative impacts of mobility is that students who go abroad for study hardly return.
However, steps have been taken to reduce this ratio which includes establishing Intra Africa mobility programmes.
Pan African University (PAU), is part of Africa's effort for achieving internalization of higher education modeled on Europe's Bologna process which aims to create and strengthen higher education sector.
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These steps have taken more regional dimensions in East African Community (EAC) and Sothern African Development Community (SADC). Africa's economic growth can speed up this process in which ICT infrastructure will play a vital role.
According to Africa Policy Review, inadequate funding, weak governmental structures, and regulatory mechanisms are few challenges that can stop internalization efforts in Africa.