Cricket-Foakes keeps Bairstow out as England retain Galle XI
The tourists' batting order is set to be rejigged, though, with Ben Stokes replacing Moeen Ali, who managed zero and three in Galle, at number three, the England and Wales Cricket Board (ECB) said on its website.
Moeen, who claimed eight wickets in the series opener which England won by 211 runs inside four days, will bat at number six instead.
With Jonny Bairstow fit and available for selection after sitting out of the series opener with an ankle injury, England captain Joe Root had faced a selection dilemma.
Replacing the injured Bairstow at Galle, Foakes' century on debut and tidy glovework behind the stumps eventually clinched it in his favour.
His 107 in the first innings was key to England's comprehensive victory, also earning him the man-of-the-match award.
"Ben is going to keep," Root said in comments published by The Independent before the team was announced.
"We've come to Sri Lanka to win this tour. And in these conditions, I think Ben is the best option behind the stumps.
"It's a great opportunity for Ben to show his ability, and I think you've got to reward a performance like last week."
Root said his Yorkshire team mate Bairstow, who has strengthened England's lower-middle order with his batting and worked hard on his wicketkeeping, still had a role to play in the test side.
"Jonny is a fine keeper and what he's done over the last couple of years has been exceptional," Root added.
"He's pretty much been faultless, not really stood out at all, which is probably a good thing for a wicketkeeper, and long-term I see him as a focal part of the test team."
To make it worse, spinner Akila Dananjaya has been reported for a suspect bowling action, though he is free to play, while paceman Lahiru Kumara has been dropped from the squad for breaking team curfew.
England team for second test: Rory Burns, Keaton Jennings, Ben Stokes, Joe Root (captain), Jos Buttler, Moeen Ali, Ben Foakes (wicketkeeper), Sam Curran, Adil Rashid, Jack Leach, James Anderson (Reporting by Greg Stutchbury and Amlan Chakraborty; Editing by Hugh Lawson)
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