That Tuesday's meeting in Palermo, Sicily took place at all could be seen as a success in a fraught diplomatic environment in which factions on the ground in the widely lawless country and their foreign allies have rarely seen eye to eye.
In a sign of the tense atmosphere, the Turkish delegation stormed out early, complaining of being excluded from a meeting.
Libyan Prime Minister Fayez al-Serraj, whose weak but internationally recognised government is based in the country's west, met Khalifa Haftar who rules most of the east.
There were no announcements of diplomatic breakthroughs, but Serraj's spokesman said on Twitter the prime minister was committed to a U.N. road map to hold an election in the spring after a constitutional framework is put in place.
A previous U.N. plan for elections next month was shelved last week.
A draft communique, reviewed by Reuters, said Libyan delegations had agreed to prepare for the election by spring 2019 and abide by the results.
An Italian diplomat said Haftar had given his backing for Serraj to remain in office as prime minister until the election can be held. "You don't change the horse until you cross the river," the diplomat quoted Haftar as saying.
Despite Haftar having said he would not participate in the conference, photos showed him with Serraj and Italian Prime Minister Giuseppe Conte embracing and smiling in a three-way handshake. The Libyan rivals were also pictured with dignitaries including Egyptian President Abdel Fattah al-Sisi, European Union Council President Donald Tusk, Russian Prime Minister Dmitry Medvedev and French Foreign Minister Jean-Yves Le Drian.
However, Haftar skipped the official final summit photo, as did his foreign ally Sisi.
Turkish Vice President Fuat Oktay said Turkey had walked out with "deep disappointment" after apparently being excluded from events. "Any meeting which excludes Turkey would prove to be counter-productive for the solution of this problem," he said.
More than seven years after long-serving dictator Muammar Gaddafi was toppled by Western-backed rebels with NATO air support, no central authority has asserted control over Libya and armed groups control the streets.
The United Nations has blamed a spike in violence for its decision to drop plans to hold an election next month. It still aims for a vote next year, but says Libyans should first decide what sort of election they want.
Italy, the former colonial power which has large oil and gas interests in Libya and has been working to halt people-smuggling from the Libyan coast across the Mediterranean, had called the summit in a bid to bring together Libya's competing factions.
Haftar, a former officer in Gaddafi's military who lived for years in exile in the United States, has emerged as the leader of the most powerful armed faction, having defeated Islamist militants in the east with support from Egypt and Arab states.
Serraj, heading the government in the west, has struggled to exert control beyond the capital Tripoli. Rival parliaments in the east and west also claim legitimacy as the legislature for the entire oil-producing country.
Although he came to Palermo, Haftar had poured scorn on the summit, saying he was there only for bilateral meetings, not for the conference itself: “I will not take part in the summit even if it takes 100 years,” he said in a television interview.
Italy has been eager to play a high profile role in Libyan diplomacy, competing with France, which staged a conference in May, the last time Haftar and Serraj met. The May conference produced a commitment to hold the December election.
France has been courting Haftar, while Italy is seen as backing Serraj and his weak Government of National Accord (GNA). (Reporting by Ayman al-Warfalli and Ulf Laessing Writing by Peter Graff and Ulf Laessing Editing by Mark Heinrich)
(This story has not been edited by Devdiscourse staff and is auto-generated from a syndicated feed.)