Peaty, who holds the world record in 50 and 100 metres, was one of more than 30 Olympic and world champions to meet in London this week to discuss having more power and say in their sport amid growing frustrations with FINA.
The summit, at Chelsea's Stamford Bridge stadium, proposed setting up a global swimmers' association partly in response to FINA forcing the cancellation this month of a new rival event by separate event body the International Swimming League (ISL).
FINA last week announced a new team event to start next year, the Champions Swim Series, with a reported $3.9 million in prize money in an attempt to placate athletes.
Peaty, who smashed his own 100m record twice at the 2016 Olympics and then again in August this year, felt that it was not enough.
"50-50 (percent pay)," he told Reuters when asked what he wanted from the governing body.
"That's what we need to take away (from summit). We also need to take away that the athletes need their voices heard and there's 100 other things, that's the problem. Why is there 100 other things? Because we haven't been listened to."
FINA did not immediately respond to an emailed request for comment.
Peaty said that while his titles meant he could attract sponsorship deals to supplement income, the same could not be said of a swimmer who just misses out on a podium finish, even if they are the fourth best in the world in their discipline.
That was echoed by double Olympic backstroke champion Ryan Murphy who called for a breakdown of FINA's finances and how it contributed to prize money.
"The main thing I want from FINA is transparency. I have no idea if we're getting enough," the American told Reuters.
"There is no information... I'm sponsored by Speedo and I'm lucky that Speedo saw I could bring value to their company but not every swimmer is lucky like that so it is important for us to increase our opportunities outside of the major meets."
The ISL, backed by Ukrainian energy businessman Konstantin Grigorishin, intends to finally launch its competition next year which would feature 12 teams from Europe and the U.S.
"We want to come together (and) if any one of us would get a ban, we would stand together so that there shouldn't be anything about banning," said Hungary's three-time Olympic champion Katinka Hosszu, nicknamed the 'Iron Lady'.
Federica Pellegrini, Italy's first female Olympic champion in swimming, insisted that the power rested with the athletes.
"I hope it will not come to a strike. This should be a last resort option," she said when asked if swimmers would make a stand should their demands not be met.
Peaty, 23, said he also had grievances with FINA's handling of anti-doping cases.
"Why am I racing people that have doped three or four times before? Why is it still in the sport? It's embarrassing and there's no integrity...
"There needs to be lifetime bans for anyone (doping) and if you speak to any athlete they'd agree but people are afraid to say it because of the backlash. I'm not afraid to say it."
The International Olympic Committee has previously tried to implement lifetime bans for proven dopers, however that has been prevented by the Court of Arbitration for Sport. (Reporting by Christian Radnedge; editing by Martyn Herman)
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