The on-field theatrics and fake cries of pain from the likes of Neymar and Mbappe may have left football fans frustrated this World Cup season, but such behaviour possibly aided our ancestors' survival and helped human speech evolve, a study has found.
"We've seen fantastic football from the likes of Neymar and Mbappe at this year's World Cup, but they've also treated us to an unhealthy dose of play-acting antics and football con-artistry: quadruple rolls brought on at times by a mere Siberian breeze, often accompanied by devious squeals designed to deceive the referee into brandishing a colourful card or awarding a dangerous free-kick," Jordan Raine, a psychologist at the University of Sussex in the UK.
"While we all want to see such behaviour kicked out of the beautiful game, the vocal aspect of pain fakery - both on and off the pitch - is an effective strategy with evolutionary roots that may help explain how speech evolved," Raine said.
For the study, published in the journal Bioacoustics, the researchers recruited actors-in-training to simulate vocalisations expressing three levels of increasing pain, and asked listeners to rate how much pain each vocalisation conveyed.
They then examined which aspects of their voices vocalisers manipulated, and how this influenced listeners.
The researchers found that vocalisers simulated increasing pain using similar voice characteristics to those that communicate authentic pain in babies and other animals. The faked pain cries also influenced listeners' perceptions in a similar way.
"From an evolutionary perspective, for our ancestors navigating an environment with danger at every turn, this ability to convincingly simulate or exaggerate pain - and, crucially, elicit more urgent aid - may have provided a vital survival advantage," Raine said.
"But more than this, developing the ability to produce and modulate pain cries and other vocalisations at will, as opposed to the automatic vocal responses to stimuli and internal states we observe in nonhuman mammals, was likely a key step in our progression from primitive nonverbal noises to complex speech," he said.
"The light bulb realisation that the voice can intentionally be used to influence others, rather than just honestly communicating information, paves the way for a whole street of light bulbs, and an increasingly flexible use of voice," he added.
"Simulating pain in cries would logically lead to more complex and varied vocal deception, and eventually, the production of an arbitrary sound whose meaning is agreed culturally rather than biologically," Raine said.
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