The 37-year-old loosehead prop, who made 129 appearances for Wales, has been battling back from a chronic knee injury which has limited him to two appearances for Cardiff A in the Celtic Cup this season.
Following a medical assessment, Jenkins has been told his right knee is not healthy enough to continue playing on a regular basis and he will bid farewell to the game in what will be his 195th appearance for the Blues.
"I have been working hard rehabbing over the last three months and I was confident I was going to be back playing so it's disappointing to be retiring after Sunday's game against Zebre," Jenkins said in a statement.
"It's obviously a big decision but I've had a good inning, it's time to finish and I'm looking forward to one more run out on the weekend and hopefully finishing on a high."
"The pain I have been experiencing from rugby, in my daily life, simply isn't tolerable but it's important to me that after all the work I have put in, I run out with my team one last time and finish on my own terms."
Jenkins played a pivotal role in Wales' four Six Nations titles, including three Grand Slams, while he won two European Challenge Cups with the Blues and a European Champions Cup during his one season at Toulon.
He will take up a coaching role within the Blues academy as he transitions to life after playing.
(With inputs from agencies.)