Bassi in his plea said his transfer to Andaman and Nicobar Islands on October 24 is "mala fide and derails a sensitive probe" and added that allegations against Asthana are "grave".
A bench of CJI Ranjan Gogoi and justices U U Lalit and K M Joseph said: "it will look into an urgent listing of the plea" after advocate Sunil Fernandes sought listing of the petition on November 2.
In his plea, Bassi claimed the transfer order is "vitiated by mala fide, and interference in the fair and impartial investigation of the pending case(s) and intended to penalise and victimise an officer for his honesty and integrity".
The plea, filed through advocate Fernandes, said that Bassi is also aggrieved by the actions taken after his transfer, whereby not only the course of the investigation of a highly sensitive case, investigated by him is sought to be influenced.
"Bassi bears a reasonable apprehension that he and his team members and senior officers, would be implicated in the same," it said.
It further alleged that Bassi was being subjected to intimidation and veiled threats by the present Investigating Officer.
"The manner of transfer showed vindictiveness because of the fact that the name of Asthana and Joint Director Sai Manohar were cropping up in the false statement of Sana. The applicant herein is being subjected to intimidation and veiled threats by the present Investigating Officer," it said.
Bassi said in his plea that he believed that he will be made a "scapegoat and victimised" for discharging his duties in the FIR pertaining to Asthana and "grave and irreparable harm and injury" shall befall Bassi if the application is not allowed.
The plea claimed that Manohar was handpicked because as soon he became interim chief of CBI in December 2016, he handed over the Policy Division to the Junior Joint Director Manohar.
"Asthana is the main reason why the extension was given to Manohar in spite of objections from Director CBI. Now Sai Manohar is advising and driving the investigation of this case and trying to frame the entire investigation team for doing their job honestly and sincerely," it said.
The plea alleged that the all-pervasive manipulations and machinations inside CBI to save some select officers from their misdeeds and penalise officers like Bassi for conscientiously carrying out their duties, have forced him to move the top court.
"It is instructive to note that all the officers who were a part of the investigation of the aforementioned FIR against Asthana and Kumar were summarily transferred without any valid or cogent reason," it said.
The plea further asked for the CBI to place all evidence collected by Bassi and others, including the transcripts of the technical surveillance, to be placed, in a sealed cover, before the apex court.
It also sought direction to constitute a Special Investigative Team (SIT) which would conduct an impartial investigation in the FIR.
(With inputs from agencies.)