Combating Cyber Threats in Radiology: Robust Strategies for Ensuring Data and Patient Security

Radiology practices face significant cybersecurity challenges, emphasizing the need for proactive measures such as robust encryption, firewalls, and comprehensive training to protect sensitive medical data and ensure patient care. Highlighting vulnerabilities from DoS attacks to malware, researchers underscore the industry's lag in cybersecurity and the critical importance of continuous vigilance and updated defenses.

CoE-EDP, VisionRICoE-EDP, VisionRI | Updated: 11-07-2024 15:31 IST | Created: 11-07-2024 15:31 IST
Combating Cyber Threats in Radiology: Robust Strategies for Ensuring Data and Patient Security
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The healthcare sector, particularly radiology, faces significant cybersecurity challenges, as detailed in a study by researchers from The Ohio State University College of Medicine, Penn State Hershey Medical Center, University of Chicago Medicine, and Mayo Clinic Arizona. Radiology relies heavily on interconnected digital systems, making it vulnerable to various cybersecurity threats that can compromise patient care, financial stability, and institutional reputation. The article highlights that the healthcare industry, including radiology, lags behind other sectors in cybersecurity measures. The 2024 Verizon Data Breach Investigations Report underscores this, revealing 1,378 healthcare data security incidents, with 1,220 confirmed data breaches, marking a notable shift where internal threats now outpace external ones.

Inside the World of Cyber Threats: A Radiology Perspective

Common cyber threats include Denial-of-Service (DoS) attacks, malware (such as viruses, ransomware, and spyware), and privilege escalation, which expands user access to install malicious software. Significant incidents, such as a ransomware attack on a Vermont medical center, resulted in a 70 million dollars loss and a month-long disruption in electronic medical records access, forcing a return to paper-based workflows. Addressing these threats requires comprehensive measures. It is crucial to stop and contain attacks promptly, assess the extent of data breaches, and notify affected parties as per legal requirements. Federal regulations like HIPAA and the HITECH Act mandate the notification of individuals and the Department of Health and Human Services (DHHS) when breaches involve personal health information (PHI).

Proactive Defenses: Securing Radiology Networks

Proactive cybersecurity practices are essential. Network segmentation, firewalls, and encryption are primary defenses. Encryption, particularly public-key cryptography, ensures data security during transmission. Virtual private networks (VPNs) are recommended for accessing healthcare systems remotely or transmitting data over unsecured networks. Additionally, robust password policies, multi-factor authentication, and regular software updates are critical to protecting against unauthorized access and malware. Radiology-specific considerations include securing Picture Archiving and Communication Systems (PACS) and DICOM (Digital Imaging and Communications in Medicine) standards, which handle sensitive imaging data. The article advises placing DICOM servers behind firewalls, using allowlists to restrict access, and employing digital signatures or watermarks to prevent data tampering. Another highlighted risk is the potential for malicious HL7 messages to alter patient data across interconnected systems.

The Human Factor: Training and Vigilance in Cybersecurity

Ensuring optimal cybersecurity in healthcare requires a team effort, with each individual maintaining awareness of their responsibilities. Since radiology and other healthcare operations typically involve storing or transmitting sensitive data, such as medical history and financial information, breaches can pose monetary, legal, and reputational risks. Modern radiology systems are strongly dependent on multiple interconnected electronic systems, and any disruption can impair patient care. The healthcare industry, however, still trails behind other sectors in cybersecurity readiness, according to a 2017 systematic review. The 2024 Verizon Data Breach Investigations Report highlighted that internal actors were responsible for 70% of healthcare data breaches in 2023, with the remaining 30% due to external threats. This represents a reversal from the previous two years when most breaches were external. In 2023, most breaches resulted from unintentional errors or privilege misuse, with system intrusions as the third most common scenario. The upward trend in healthcare data breaches, including those in radiology, is concerning. For instance, a major breach in North Carolina in 2023 affected over 880,000 patients, while a 2021 breach in Utah impacted more than 580,000 patients.

Building Robust Defenses: Firewalls, Encryption, and VPNs

Practical steps for mitigating risks include robust network defenses such as firewalls, encryption for data in transit, and secure communication channels like VPNs. Home network users are familiar with basic protections afforded by routers, which often serve as gateways with firewall functions. Encryption is crucial, especially when transmitting sensitive data over public networks. Public-key cryptography, where a public key encrypts data and a private key decrypts it, offers a secure way to communicate. For additional security, institutions often use hybrid encryption methods. It's also important for radiologists to ensure encrypted communication of medical information and images. Password policies should enforce complexity and periodic changes to prevent unauthorized access. Multi-factor authentication adds another layer of security, requiring a secondary verification method.

From PACS to Portable Media: Addressing Specific Vulnerabilities

Human factors are a significant vulnerability in cybersecurity. Education and training on recognizing phishing attempts and other social engineering attacks are critical. The use of CAPTCHA tests and locking out users after failed login attempts can deter brute-force attacks. Regular backups and secure storage of critical data, along with updated antivirus software, can mitigate the damage from malware. For radiology, specific vulnerabilities related to PACS and DICOM standards need addressing. Ensuring DICOM servers are behind firewalls, using digital signatures, and encrypting internal data transfers can reduce risks. Moreover, assessing and mitigating risks from older medical devices is essential since these can be vulnerable to security breaches. Cooperation among stakeholders is vital to maintaining cybersecurity in radiology practices, with continuous updates and vigilance necessary to protect sensitive data and ensure patient care quality.

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